Physicians and surgeons have demanding education and training requirements. Physicians typically need to complete a bachelor's degree, then a degree from a medical school, and internship and residency programs. Although no specific major is required, students usually complete undergraduate work in biology, chemistry, physics, math, and English. In addition, some students volunteer at local hospitals or clinics to gain experience in a healthcare setting.
Medical schools are highly competitive, and applicants must submit transcripts, as well as scores from the Medical College Admission Test (MCAT). Students spend most of the first 2 years of medical school in laboratories and classrooms, taking courses such as anatomy, biochemistry, pharmacology, psychology, medical ethics, and in the laws governing medicine. They also gain practical skills, such as learning to take medical histories, examine patients, and diagnose illnesses. During their final 2 years, medical students work with patients under the supervision of experienced physicians in hospitals and clinics.
Coronary artery disease occurs when the coronary arteries become hardened and narrowed, due to the buildup of fatty deposits known as atherosclerosis, which restricts the flow of blood. Heart disease is a condition where the heart muscle grows progressively weaker, and cannot pump enough blood to meet the body's needs for oxygen. Failure can also stem from problems with the heart's valves, rheumatic heart disease, bacterial infections, and congenital defects. Common symptoms of heart disease are fatigue, swelling of the legs, rapid weight gain, loss of appetite, abdominal bloating, and difficulty sleeping.